Diabetes Mellitus as a risk factor for Periodontal disease

This study was carried out at Bowring Hospital, Victoria Hospital, M.R. Ambedkar Dental College & Hospital, I.T.I Hospital, Bangalore, and B.G.M.L Hospital, Kolar to assess the periodontal status clinically as well as histopathologically on 30 Non Insulin dependent Diabetes Mellitus ( NIDDM ) and 30 non-diabetics in the age group of 35-50 years.

The results clearly show the following findings:

  • Probing depth, attachment loss, and alveolar bone loss showed a highly significant increase in diabetic group as compared to the non-diabetic group.
  • With almost similar plaque scores in both the groups, the diabetic group showed a significantly higher attachment loss.
  • When attachment loss was correlated with gingival index and papillary bleeding index, the scores were higher for the diabetic group than the non-diabetics

On histopathological analysis, the diabetic group showed:

  • Increased basement membrane thickness
  • Widening of basement membrane with increased staining intensity, swelling, and proliferation of endothelial cells.

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